Born on June 27, 1869 in Vilkeni
district (Latvia), died on April 21, 1939 in Riga. Graphic artist.
Studies at the School of Kurzeme Knighthood in Griva, School of Imperial
Society for the Fostering of Art (1886); a graduate of V. Mate's etching
class at Stiglitz's Central School for Technical Drawing (1888-1895)
in St. Petersburg. Participation in the activities of Rukis artists'
group, member of the Latvian Association for the Promotion of Arts.
Further studies in Berlin, Munich, Vienna and Paris. Employment at
the Russian Imperial Printing Office in St. Petersburg (1899-1919),
its technical director since 1905. In 1919, after return to Latvia,
he directed the Government Printing House (1919-1933). Professor,
head of the graphic arts workshop at the Latvian Academy of Arts (1921-1938).